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Inter-operator reliability of Videobserver™

The purpose of this study was to measure the degree of inter-observer reliability for the sport analysis company VIDEOBSERVER™. The football match corresponding to the 2014 World Cup final was the sample for the study. Data was collected from 28 players, including the actions of the goalkeepers and the replaced players during the match.

The values of the kappa index, the standardized typical error and the intra-class correlation coefficient were used for the statistical analysis. 

Collective Data


Individual Data

desviacion-media-individual kappa-individual

The main goal of this study was to verify inter-operator reliability for VIDEOBSERVER™ sports analysis company.  The results shows high level of reliability with regard to inter-operator analysis, as can be seen in the high values of intra-class correlation (both at the individual and collective level) and the small standardized typical error, being similar to those referenced in previous reliability studies on observational software for football (Liu et al., 2013).

This study adds an innovative element of analysis as the evaluation was carried out not only at the collective level but also at the individual level.

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António da Cruz

António da Cruz

António da Cruz, 30 years old, with a degree in high performance in Soccer and a masters degree in scientific investigation in Sports by INEF, Madrid. Has coached U13 to U17 teams. UEFA B coach, currently in a Spanish 2nd B Division club with Analysis and Fitness Coach responsibilities. António da Cruz, 30 anos, com licenciatura em alto rendimento em futebol e mestrado em investigação científica em desporto pelo INEF, Madrid. Treinou equipas dos sub-13 aos sub-17. Treinador UEFA B, actualmente num clube da 2ª Divisão B espanhola com responsabilidades na área da Análise e da preparação física. Email:

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